Trends in globally and annually averaged temperature when considering whether it was an El Niño year, a La Niña year, or a neutral year (no El Niño or La Niña event). The average global temperature is 0.4ºF higher in El Niño years than in La Niña years. However, all trends show the same significant increase in temperature over the past 45 years. The years for the short-term cooling effect following the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption are not included in the trends. (Figure source: adapted from John Nielsen-Gammon 2012.
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Oceans, Physical Climate, Observations, Extreme Events